Richard was built-in at Bordeaux in France on 6th January 1367, the son of Edward the ‘Black Prince’ (eldest son of Baron Edward III) and Joan, alleged the ‘Fair Maid of Kent’. The afterlife of his age-old brother Edward larboard him the sole heir. His ancestor died in 1376 and so Richard succeeded his grandfathering as king.
Richard was adherent to Westminster Abbey and to St Edward the Confessor and he rebuilt the arctic access and some accolade of the nave. He additionally partly rebuilt Westminster Hall, in the Palace of Westminster. In 1381 the Peasants’ Revolt bankrupt out adjoin the poll tax and Richard, age-old aloof 14, rode out and bravely confronted the mob and pacified them. Although a handsome, able man he was not a acknowledged adjudicator and he was deposed as baron and confined in 1399 by his accessory Henry Bolingbroke (who became Henry IV), son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster.
Richard’s half-sister Maud Holland (a babe of Joan and her aboriginal bedmate Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent), was acutely active in the Abbey in 1392.
He affiliated Anne babe of the Emperor Charles IV of Bohemia, and sister of Baron Wenceslas IV, in Westminster Abbey in January 1382 and was adherent to her. She was crowned two canicule afterwards by Archbishop Courtenay. They had no children. An aflame manuscript, the Liber Regalis, now on affectation in the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Galleries, is said to accept been accounting for use at her coronation. It has three illuminations of accession scenes (the baron alone, queen abandoned and baron and queen together). In 1396 Richard affiliated the 7 year old Isabelle of France as his additional wife.
Richard was crowned in the Abbey on 16th July 1377 age-old alone 10. The day afore the commemoration he candy on horseback from the Tower of London to Westminster. The streets were alive with entertainers and busy with ablaze banners and tapestries. This was the aboriginal anytime accession procession.
A abreast account of the Baron cutting accession apparel built-in in the Accession Chair and captivation the orb and baton is now placed in the axis of the Abbey, accepting originally been displayed on the south ancillary of the Quire stalls. This board panel-painting (213.5cm x 110cm) is the age-old accepted account of an English monarch, dating from the 1390s. The advancement has been fabricated that the artisan was cloister painter André Beauneveu. The active colours appearance the baron in a blooming anorak busy with the letter R, cutting a blood-soaked bathrobe lined with ermine, an ermine cape, bittersweet socks and gold shoes. It was adequate and re-framed (to a architecture by Sir George Gilbert Scott) in the backward 19th century. Unfortunately during this apology by George Richmond in 1866 the diapered bizarre arena and the aloft gesso assignment on the crown, orb and baton were taken off. Alone a few patches of this adornment can still be seen.
After his degradation he died in Pontefract Castle on or about 14th February 1400, best apparently from starvation. However, rumours advance that he was absolutely murdered so his anatomy was brought for accessible appearance to St Paul’s basilica in London and again was active at a abbey in Langley, Hertfordshire. Aback Henry V came to the arch he ordered the abatement of the anatomy to Westminster Abbey in 1413 to accompany Anne in the tomb Richard had erected for them in the abbey of St Edward the Confessor, abutting to that of Edward III. The bodies lie in the tomb chest beneath the effigies.
The tomb was fabricated in 1396-1399 by London masons Henry Yevele and Stephen Lote, and chestnut smiths Nicholas Broker and Godfrey Prest casting the bizarre brownish effigies. The absolute amount was £933, 6 shillings and 8 pence. Richard and Anne were originally depicted captivation easily (as Richard had specified), but they accept been burst off. This was the aboriginal bifold aristocratic tomb and the effigies were casting in two sections rather than a distinct allotment like Eleanor of Castile’s effigy. The effigies are formed all over with patterns and Plantagenet badges – a bough of besom (planta genista), chained white hart, antecedent R and sun-burst on the king’s amount and entwined knots, crowned brand A and R and chained ostriches with a attach in the bill on Anne’s effigy. Richard is depicted in Parliament apparel while the queen wears a cote-hardi, from which the buttons are missing, an accomplished girdle and continued cloak. She has waist breadth hair.
The Latin inscription about the ledge of the tomb can be translated:
Sage and elegant, accurately Richard II, baffled by fate he lies actuality depicted beneath this marble. He was accurate in address and abounding of reason: Tall in body, he was advisable in his apperception as Homer. He showed favour to the Church, he overthrew the appreciative and threw bottomward anybody who abandoned the aristocratic prerogative. He ashamed heretics and laid low their friends. O merciful Christ, to whom he was devoted, may you save [Richard], through the prayers of the Baptist, whom he esteemed
Anne’s allotment of the inscription can be translated as:
Beneath a ample bean now Anna lies entombed; aback she lived in the apple she was the helpmate of Richard the Second. She was adherent to Christ and able-bodied accepted for her deeds; she was anytime absorbed to accord her ability to the poor; she calmed quarrels and abate the pregnant. She was admirable in anatomy and her face was affable and pretty. She provided alleviation to widows, and anesthetic to the sick. In 1394 on a affable seventh day of the ages of June, she anesthetized over. Amen
Both effigies are assuredly portraits and the baron wears a abbreviate chiffon beard, as in his corrective portrait. Much of the decoration, including the beasts acknowledging the anxiety (two lions at Richard’s anxiety and a bobcat and hawkeye at Anne’s) and the jewels from Anne’s dress, has now disappeared. Queen Victoria ordered new cushions to be fabricated to abutment their heads.
The metal table on which they lie is in two pieces diapered with lions and fleurs de lis and lions and eagles respectively. On the awning at the aback of the active there are formed bouncer with the accoutrements of Edward the Confessor impaling France and England annual with chained harts as supporters and the accoutrements of France and England impaling Bohemia with hawkeye supporters
The oak tester, or panel, aloft the effigies shows four corrective scenes, the outlines of which can still be fabricated out. Each has a accomplishments of bizarre gesso assignment (similar to that which was originally on his portrait) and the capacity are: two angels continuing on a flowered arise and acknowledging a absorber (now defaced), the accession of the Virgin, Christ enthroned, and angels agnate to the aboriginal arena acknowledging a absorber with the accoutrements of France and England impaling the hawkeye of the Empire quartering the crowned bobcat of Bohemia. The ribs and cornice of the tester are corrective with rosettes.
In the Abbey account of St Edward’s abbey in 1520 it mentions a “canvas bolt decrepit atramentous with a white hart to awning the tomb of Richard II”.
When Anne died in 1394 Richard was so affliction stricken that he burst Sheen Palace, area she had died. Anne of Bohemia’s board burial amount arch is still in the Abbey collection. The tomb was opened in 1871 and best of Anne’s skeleton was missing as basic had been extracted by visitors over the years through a aperture in the ancillary of the tomb abject area enamelled bouncer had already been attached. The statues of saints in the niches beneath the effigies no best abide (compare the architecture of Edward III’s tomb adjoining). Dean Stanley abiding the basic neatly and additionally put aback some added items which had been larboard in the tomb in 1413.
During the 1914-18 war the effigies were stored in the Chapter Abode catacomb and from 1939-45 they were abandoned to a country house.
Tomb dimensions: Breadth 3.84 metres, amplitude 2.10 metres, acme 1.90 metres.
Her burial amount is on affectation in the new Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Galleries
Richard II by Nigel Saul, 1997
On an assay of the tombs of Richard II and Henry III by A.P. Stanley in Archaeologia XLV, 1879
Drawings, by George Scharf, fabricated at the time of the aperture of the tomb, are at the Society of Antiquaries in London. The skulls and Richard’s ashen academician were photographed afore replacement. Some items removed by Scharf from the tomb are at the National Account Gallery. Article in The Westminster Abbey Chorister Summer 2011.
Observations on the heraldic devices..on the effigies of Richard the Additional and his queen by J.G.Nichols, Archaeologia vol. XXIX, 1841
A abstraction of the abstracts and techniques of the tester over the tomb of Richard II… apriorism by Abigail Weatherill, 2010.
History of the King’s Works – vol. 1 edited by H.M. Colvin, 1963
Royal brownish effigies in Westminster Abbey by Plenderleith and Maryon, Antiquaries Journal XXXIX, 1959 (describing the charwoman afterwards the war and adjustment of casting the effigies)
History & Antiquities of the Abbey Church of St Peter Westminster…by J.P.Neale and E.W.Brayley, vol II, 1823 (discussing the tomb and the affairs for it)
The Virgin Mary and White Harts…14th aeon bank paintings…by Jane Spooner in BAA Conference affairs “Westminster….the art…of the Aristocratic Abbey”, 2015
Restoration of the account of Richard II by Ian McClure, in New offerings, age-old treasures. Studies in medieval art…edited by Paul Binski and William Noel, 2001
The aboriginal address of the Westminster Abbey account of Richard II by J.Nadolny and A.Roy in Medieval Painting in Arctic Europe…2006
Portraits of the afterwards Plantagenets by F. Hepburn, 1986
The Burial Effigies of Westminster Abbey edited by A. Harvey and R. Mortimer, 2003 revised edition
The august angel of Richard II and the Wilton Diptych edited by Dillian Gordon and others, 1997
Andre Beauneveu by S. Nash, 2007
English Accession Records, L. Wickham Legg, 1901, for Latin argument and adaptation of the Liber Regalis
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 2004
Richard II and the English Aristocratic Treasure by Jenny Stratford 2012
Henry V by Wylie & Waugh, vol I. p.207-11 describes the king’s re-burial here
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